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4 Own experiments

4.1 Interaction between moving static magnetic fields and the gravity field of the Earth

The aim of this experiment was to determine whether there is an interaction between a moving DC current and the gravity field of the Earth. The theoretical considerations can be found in section 3.2. The experiment shows that there is no interaction between the Earth's gravitational field and a moving direct current within the framework of measurement accuracy. Furthermore, the experiment provides no evidence that the magnetic force between moving static magnetic fields would depend on the relative velocity. However, this is in line with expectations within the framework of quantino theory.

4.1.1 Experimental setup

Figure 4.1.1.1: Experimental setup
Figure 4.1.1.1 shows the test setup. This consists of an adjustable linkage on which a drill grinder (PROXXON MINIMOT) is suspended from three interconnected load cells (Phidgets Micro Load Cell (0-780g) - CZL616C). The drill grinder can be used to bring a specifically manufactured acrylic disc with a copper coil into rotation.
Figure 4.1.1.2: Load cell array
The load cells can be used to measure the force exerted on the drill grinder and the attached coil. This is mainly gravity. In this way, however, magnetic forces can also be determined, which are present, for example, when a permanent magnet is placed under the current-carrying coil. Figure 4.1.1.2 shows the mechanical design of the load cell array. Each of the load cells contains a strain gauge that changes the internal resistance when bent.

Figure 4.1.1.3: Bridge circuit with ADC
In order to measure such dynamic resistance changes, the load cell array is connected to a Wheatstone bridge with integrated AD converter (Phidgets PhidgetBridge 4-Input). This bridge is shown in Figure 4.1.1.3. It is important to note that each of the inputs has been bridged with a 2200 uF electrolytic capacitor so that high-frequency vibrations do not produce an aliasing noise when the coil rotates. The bridge operates with a sampling frequency of 125 Hz and transmits the data via USB to a connected Linux-PC, which stores the mean value of the three channels, filtered with a moving median filter, in a Wav file. The sources of this program can be found here.

Figure 4.1.1.4: Acrylic disc with copper coil, integrated voltage source, H-bridge circuit for automatic current direction change and current direction indication (blue/red)
Figure 4.1.1.4 shows the coil attached to the drill grinder. The coil body is a disc cut out of a 15 mm thick acrylic panel by laser, in which there is a milled groove on the side for receiving the copper winding. The enamelled copper wire in this groove has a wire diameter of 0.35 mm and a total length of 125 m, which corresponds to approx. 440 windings for the mean coil diameter of 9 cm. The resistance of the coil is 22 Ohm. Because the disc rotates at 4000 rpm during the experiment, great care was taken to avoid unbalance.

As shown in Figure 4.1.1.4, there are battery compartments in the disc. These are used to take up two lithium-ion accumulators with a open-circuit voltage of 4.1 volts. Since both battery trays are connected in series, the voltage across the coil is 8.2 V when the accumulators are fully charged. This results in a calculated current of 0.37 A, which is practically a little lower, since the voltage drops slightly due to the low coil resistance. A measurement gave a current of 350 mA at 7.75 V voltage under load.

Figure 4.1.1.5: H-bridge circuit for automatic current direction change

The task of the glued-on circuit board is to change the current direction automatically and without the aid of mechanical components every few seconds. The schematic is shown in Figure 4.1.1.5 (the KiCad files can be found here).

Figure 4.1.1.6: The current directions.
Figure 4.1.1.6 shows the direction of the electron flow in relation to the direction of rotation. The red phase lasts about 3 seconds, the blue phase about 7 seconds. Since the direction of rotation of the drill grinder is always identical, the electrons move cyclically for 7 seconds somewhat faster than the metal ions of the copper wire. For about 3 seconds the electrons are slower than the metal ions.

4.1.2 Calibration and determination of accuracy

Figure 4.1.2.1: Calibration with test weights
Figure 4.1.2.2: Result after calibration with the test weights

To calibrate the experimental setup, combinations of 10g, 20g and 50g test weights have been applied, as shown in Figure 4.1.2.1. After the settling, the respective mean voltage value was measured. With the data determined in this way, a linear function was calculated and the parameters of the function were inserted into the measuring program.

The reproducibility was afterwards checked by putting on the test weights again. This yielded the measurement curve shown in Figure 4.1.2.2. It turned out that the measurement setup drifts relatively easy but comparatively slow. The absolute mean values when applying the test weights are listed in the following table. The same applies to the standard deviations.

test weight masured mean value measured standard deviation
0 g-0.880 g16.7 mg
10 g9.446 g15.4 mg
30 g28.304 g10.5 mg
80 g79.583 g20.7 mg

The standard deviations show that the measurement setup can detect weight variations of about 20mg or forces of about 200μN.

4.1.3 Measurement results

Figure 4.1.3.1: Measurement of the force between the current in the coil and the permanent magnet located 20cm below.
Figure 4.1.3.2: The measurement data once with permanent magnet (blue) and once without (red). The motor was switched on at 120s and switched off at 720s.
Here are the measurement data with permanent magnet and here the measurement data without permanent magnet in the form of Wav files. The data in the files are scaled so that full scale corresponds to 10kg.

4.1.4 Interpretation

In order to interpret the measured data, the range after the engine has started up to full speed and the switching-off of the engine has been extracted (from 400s to 715s in figure 4.1.3.2). For drift compensation, a linear regression was then performed for each of the two signals and the function determined in this way was then subtracted from the signal. Figure 4.1.4.1 shows the amplitude spectrums of the drift compensated signals.

Figure 4.1.4.1: Amplitude spectrums of the linearly corrected measured data in the time range from 400 to 715 seconds with magnet (blue) and without magnet (red).
The spectrum of the measurement with the permanent magnet shows a significant peak at about 0.1Hz. This is the fundamental frequency of the direction change of the current . The first harmonic is also visible. The effect of the magnet can therefore be detected very reliably. However, when the permanent magnet is missing, the peak is also missing. This means that the current signal in the coil has no effect on the measured weight signal.

However, according to the model of mass in quantino theory, such an effect should exist. By inserting I=0.35A, f = 4000/60Hz, d=0.09m into equation (3.2.20), a virtual mass of 0.34mg per wire loop results. Because there are 440 wire loops in total, if the mass hypothesis is correct, a total virtual mass of ±149.6mg should be measurable. This can be excluded by means of the measurement data. Moving electrical charges thus interact either not at all with the gravitational field or the effect is at least 20 times smaller. The hypothesis must therefore be rejected in its present form.